If we do not intervene, approximately 15-30% of mothers living with HIV will transmit the infection to their children during pregnancy and delivery. Breastfeeding increases the risk of transmission by about 10-15%. This risk depends on clinical factors and could vary depending on the pattern and duration of breastfeeding.
Much progress has been made in reducing the number of children born with HIV. The risk of a woman living with HIV passing the virus to her baby can be reduced by as much as 5% or less if effective antiretroviral treatment is administered during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. Primary prevention of new HIV infections among women of childbearing age, along with early access to prenatal care and HIV testing, are key to the strategy, as well as encouraging women living with HIV to continue for life with treatment for the sake of your own health (the Option B + strategy).
Early diagnosis in infants is essential to identify the serological status of infants and improve treatment and prevention programs, since the highest mortality rates occur between six weeks and four months of age in children who have acquired HIV infection.
Healthcare workers should take the following universal precautions. Universal Precautions are infection control guidelines developed to protect healthcare workers and their patients from exposure to diseases transmitted through blood and certain body fluids.
In addition, it is recommended that all healthcare workers take precautions to avoid injuries caused by needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments or appliances. According to universal precautions, the blood and other body fluids of all people are considered infected with HIV and other possible viruses, regardless of the person’s known or assumed status.
There is no cure for HIV. However, there is an effective treatment which, if started immediately and taken regularly, makes the person living with HIV have a quality life and a life expectancy similar to that expected in the case of people. who have not contracted the virus.